NGAL Human Kidney Partially Purified
Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin is a 25 kDa protein and as its name suggests, the protein in neutrophils is often found bound to gelatinase-B (also known as matrix metalloproteinase-9)1,2. NGAL is also known as lipocalin-2. Lipocalins are proteins that bind and transport various substances. While the physiological role of NGAL is not fully understood, it is thought to play a role in the response to bacterial infection by sequestering iron and thus making it less available to invading pathogens3.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a condition in which rapid decline of kidney function is observed. Although there is not a universally agreed upon definition of AKI, it is a very common problem, being reported in up to 0.5% of the general population, depending on the definition used4. AKI is difficult to diagnose since symptoms and elevated levels of markers of renal function (eg: creatinine) generally do not occur until the injury is quite advanced5. NGAL in both plasma and urine appears to be a marker that is very well suited for the early detection of AKI and could be instrumental in improving the diagnosis and prognosis of this condition6,7,8.
|URINARY NGAL REFERENCE RANGE9,10:
||107 ng/mL (adult)
||117.6 ng/mL (pediatric)
- 1. Kjeldsen, L., et. al. Isolation and Primary Structure of NGAL, a Novel Protein Associated with Human Neutrophil Gelatinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 268, 10425-10432, 1993.
- 2. Yan, L., et. al. The High Molecular Weight Urinary Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) Activity is a Complex of Gelatinase B/MMP9 and Neutrophil Gelatinase-Assocaited Lipocalin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276, 37258-37265, 2001.
- 3. Flo, T.H., et. al. Lipocalin 2 Mediates an Innate Immune Response to Bacterial Infection by Sequestrating Iron. Nature, 432, 921, 2004.
- 4. Hsu, C.Y., et. al. Community Based Incidence of Acute Renal Failure. Kidney Int, 72, 208-212, 2007.
- 5. Gabbard, W., et. al. NGAL: An Emerging Tool for Predicting Severity of AKI is Easily Detected by a Clinical Assay. Critical Care, 14, 318-319, 2010
- 6. Cruz., D.N., et. al. Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin is an Early Biomarker for Acute Kidney Injury in an Adult ICU Population. Intensive Care Med, 36, 444-451, 2010.
- 7. Bennett, M., et. al. Urine NGAL Predicts Severity of Acute Kindey Injury After Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 3, 665-673, 2008.
- 8. Haase, M., et. al. Accuracy of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Diagnosis and Prognosis in Acute Kidney Injry: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 54, 1012-1024, 2009.
- 9. Cagemi, G., et. al. Reference Values for Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Pediatric Age Measured with a Full Automated Chemiluminescent Platform., Clin Chem Lab Med, 51, 1101-1105, 2013.
- 10. Cullen, M.R., et. al. Establishment of a Reference Interval for Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 49, 190-193, 2012